Die Odyssee, neben der Ilias das zweite dem griechischen Dichter Homer zugeschriebene Epos, gehört zu den ältesten und einflussreichsten Dichtungen der abendländischen Literatur. In Schriftform wurde das Werk erstmals wahrscheinlich um die Wende. Die Odyssee (altgriechisch ἡ Ὀδύσσεια hē Odýsseia), neben der Ilias das zweite dem griechischen Dichter Homer zugeschriebene Epos, gehört zu den ältesten. Odyssee | Homer, Voß, Johann Heinrich | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Die Odyssee | Homer, | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Buy Ilias / Odyssee by Homer, Voß, Johann Heinrich (ISBN: ) from Amazon's Book Store. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible.
Odyssee | Homer, Voß, Johann Heinrich | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Die Odyssee | Homer, | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Odyssee translate: odyssey. Learn more in the Cambridge German-English Dictionary.
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She turned half of his men into swine after feeding them drugged cheese and wine. Hermes warned Odysseus about Circe and gave Odysseus an herb called moly which gave him resistance to Circe's magic.
Odysseus forced the now-powerless Circe to change his men back to their human form, and was subsequently seduced by her.
They remained with her on the island for one year, while they feasted and drank. Finally, guided by Circe's instructions, Odysseus and his crew crossed the ocean and reached a harbor at the western edge of the world, where Odysseus sacrificed to the dead.
He first encountered the spirit of Elpenor , a crewman who had gotten drunk and fallen from a roof to his death on Aeaea.
Elpenor's ghost told Odysseus to bury his body, which Odysseus promised to do. Odysseus then summoned the spirit of the prophet Tiresias for advice on how to appease Poseidon upon his return home, and was told that he may return home if he is able to stay himself and his crew from eating the sacred livestock of Helios on the island of Thrinacia and that failure to do so would result in the loss of his ship and his entire crew.
Next Odysseus met the spirit of his own mother, Anticlea , who had died of grief during his long absence. From her, he got his first news of his own household, threatened by the greed of the Suitors.
Finally, he met the spirits of famous men and women. Notably, he encountered the spirit of Agamemnon, of whose murder he now learned, and Achilles, who lamented the woes of the land of the dead but was comforted in hearing of the success of his son Neoptolemus for Odysseus' encounter with the dead, see also Nekuia.
Returning to Aeaea, they buried Elpenor and were advised by Circe on the remaining stages of the journey.
They skirted the land of the Sirens , who sang an enchanting song that normally caused passing sailors to steer toward the rocks, only to hit them and sink.
All of the sailors had their ears plugged up with beeswax, except for Odysseus, who was tied to the mast as he wanted to hear the song. He told his sailors not to untie him as it would only make him want to drown himself.
They then passed between the six-headed monster Scylla and the whirlpool Charybdis , narrowly avoiding death, even though Scylla snatched up six men.
Next, they landed on the island of Thrinacia , with the crew overriding Odysseus's wishes to remain away from the island. Zeus caused a storm which prevented them leaving, causing them to deplete the food given to them by Circe.
While Odysseus was away praying, his men ignored the warnings of Tiresias and Circe and hunted the sacred cattle of Helios. The Sun God insisted that Zeus punish the men for this sacrilege.
They suffered a shipwreck as they were driven towards Charybdis, and all but Odysseus were drowned. Odysseus clung to a fig tree above Charybdis.
Washed ashore on the island of Ogygia , he was compelled to remain there as Calypso's lover, bored, homesick and trapped on her small island, until she was ordered by Zeus, via Hermes, to release Odysseus.
Odysseus did not realise how long it would take to get home to his family. Having listened with rapt attention to his story, the Phaeacians agree to provide Odysseus with more treasure than he would have received from the spoils of Troy.
They deliver him at night, while he is fast asleep, to a hidden harbour on Ithaca. Poseidon, offended that the Phaeacians have returned Odysseus home, destroys the Phaeacian ship on its return voyage, and the city sacrifices to Poseidon and agrees to stop giving escorts to strangers to appease him.
Odysseus awakens and believes that he has been dropped on a distant land before Athena appears to him and reveals that he is indeed on Ithaca.
She then hides his treasure in a nearby cave and disguises him as an elderly beggar so he can see how things stand in his household. He finds his way to the hut of one of his own slaves, the swineherd Eumaeus , who treats him hospitably and speaks favorably of Odysseus.
After dinner, the disguised Odysseus tells the farm laborers a fictitious tale of himself: he was born in Crete , had led a party of Cretans to fight alongside other Greeks in the Trojan War, and had then spent seven years at the court of the king of Egypt, finally shipwrecking in Thesprotia and crossing from there to Ithaca.
He further promises the men of the return of Odysseus, but his promises are wearily discounted by the men. Meanwhile, Telemachus sails home from Sparta, evading an ambush set by the Suitors.
He disembarks on the coast of Ithaca and makes for Eumaeus's hut. Father and son meet; Odysseus identifies himself to Telemachus but still not to Eumaeus , and they decide that the Suitors must be killed.
Telemachus goes home first. Accompanied by Eumaeus, Odysseus returns to his own house, still pretending to be a beggar. When Odysseus' dog who was a puppy before he left sees him, he becomes so excited that he dies.
Odysseus meets Penelope and tests her intentions by saying he once met Odysseus in Crete. Closely questioned, he adds that he had recently been in Thesprotia and had learned something there of Odysseus's recent wanderings.
Odysseus's identity is discovered by the housekeeper, Eurycleia , when she recognizes an old scar as she is washing his feet. Eurycleia tries to tell Penelope about the beggar's true identity, but Athena makes sure that Penelope cannot hear her.
Odysseus then swears Eurycleia to secrecy. The next day, at Athena's prompting, Penelope maneuvers the Suitors into competing for her hand with an archery competition using Odysseus' bow.
The man who can string the bow and shoot an arrow through a dozen axe heads would win. Odysseus takes part in the competition himself: he alone is strong enough to string the bow and shoot the arrow through the dozen axe heads, making him the winner.
He then throws off his rags and kills Antinous with his next arrow. Then, with the help of Athena, Odysseus, Telemachus, Eumaeus, and Philoetius the cowherd he kills the other Suitors, first using the rest of the arrows and then by swords and spears once both sides armed themselves.
Once the battle is won, Telemachus also hangs twelve of their household maids whom Eurycleia identifies as guilty of betraying Penelope or having sex with the Suitors.
They mutilate and kill the goatherd Melanthius , who had mocked and abused Odysseus and brought weapons and armor to the suitors.
Now, at last, Odysseus identifies himself to Penelope. She is hesitant but recognizes him when he mentions that he made their bed from an olive tree still rooted to the ground.
Many modern and ancient scholars take this to be the original ending of the Odyssey , and the rest to be an interpolation. The next day he and Telemachus visit the country farm of his old father Laertes , who likewise accepts his identity only when Odysseus correctly describes the orchard that Laertes had previously given him.
The citizens of Ithaca have followed Odysseus on the road, planning to avenge the killing of the Suitors, their sons.
Eupheithes, their leader and father of Antinous, points out that Odysseus has now caused the deaths of two generations of the men of Ithaca: his sailors, not one of whom survived; and the Suitors, whom he has now executed.
Athena intervenes in a dea ex machina and persuades both sides to give up the vendetta. After this, Ithaca is at peace once more, concluding the Odyssey.
When asked by other Cyclopes' why he is screaming, Polyphemus replies that "Nobody" is hurting him, so the others assume that "if alone as you are [Polyphemus] none uses violence on you, why, there is no avoiding the sickness sent by great Zeus; so you had better pray to your father, the lord Poseidon.
One flaw that Odysseus displays is that of arrogance and pride or hubris. As he sails away from the island of the Cyclopes, he shouts his name and boasts that nobody can defeat the "Great Odysseus.
This enrages Poseidon, causing the god to thwart Odysseus' homecoming for a decade. The Odyssey is written in dactylic hexameter.
It opens in medias res , in the middle of the overall story, with prior events described through flashbacks or storytelling. The first four books of the poem trace Telemachus ' efforts to assert control of the household, and then, at Athena 's advice, his efforts to search for news of his long-lost father.
Then the scene shifts: Odysseus has been a captive of the beautiful nymph Calypso , with whom he has spent seven of his ten lost years.
Released by the intercession of his patroness Athena, through the aid of Hermes , he departs, but his raft is destroyed by his divine enemy Poseidon , who is angry because Odysseus blinded his son, Polyphemus.
When Odysseus washes up on Scherie , home to the Phaeacians , he is assisted by the young Nausicaä and is treated hospitably.
In return, he satisfies the Phaeacians' curiosity, telling them, and the reader, of all his adventures since departing from Troy.
The shipbuilding Phaeacians then loan him a ship to return to Ithaca , where he is aided by the swineherd Eumaeus , meets Telemachus, regains his household by killing the Suitors, and is reunited with his faithful wife, Penelope.
All ancient and nearly all modern editions and translations of the Odyssey are divided into 24 books. This division is convenient, but may not be original, as many scholars [ who?
Moreover, in the Classical period , several of the books individually and in groups were commonly given their own titles:.
Book 22 concludes the Greek Epic Cycle , though fragments remain of the "alternative ending" of sorts known as the Telegony. The Telegony aside, the last lines of the Odyssey , corresponding to Book 24, are believed by many scholars to have been added by a slightly later poet.
For more about varying views on the origin, authorship and unity of the poem see Homeric scholarship. The events in the main sequence of the Odyssey excluding Odysseus' embedded narrative of his wanderings take place in the Peloponnese and in what are now called the Ionian Islands.
The wanderings of Odysseus as told to the Phaeacians, and the location of the Phaeacians' own island of Scheria , pose more fundamental problems, if geography is to be applied: scholars, both ancient and modern, are divided as to whether or not any of the places visited by Odysseus after Ismaros and before his return to Ithaca are real.
Scholars have seen strong influences from Near Eastern mythology and literature in the Odyssey. Martin West has noted substantial parallels between the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Odyssey.
On his voyage to the underworld, Odysseus follows instructions given to him by Circe. Her island, Aeaea , is located at the edges of the world and seems to have close associations with the sun.
Like Odysseus, Gilgamesh gets directions on how to reach the land of the dead from a divine helper: in this case, the goddess Siduri , who, like Circe , dwells by the sea at the ends of the earth.
Her home is also associated with the sun: Gilgamesh reaches Siduri's house by passing through a tunnel underneath Mt.
Mashu , the high mountain from which the sun comes into the sky. West argues that the similarity of Odysseus' and Gilgamesh's journeys to the edges of the earth are the result of the influence of the Gilgamesh epic upon the Odyssey.
In , paleontologist Othenio Abel surmised the origins of the Cyclops to be the result of ancient Greeks finding an elephant skull.
Similar stories are found in cultures across Europe and the Middle East. Finding scenes occur in the Odyssey when a character discovers another character within the epic.
ODYSSEE Project About the Odyssee database The Odyssee indicators are accessible under different data tools: the full data base, the key indicators facility, as well as five specific data facilities that focus on specific issues and provide some interpretation: market diffusion, decomposition, benchmarking, energy saving and indicator scoreboard.
Odyssee Database. Key Indicators. Market diffusion.Odyssee translate: odyssey. Learn more in the Cambridge German-English Dictionary. Odyssee: Griechisch/Deutsch by Homer and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at dinkelcentrum.se Die Odyssee: Nach dem Epos von Homer by Homer and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at dinkelcentrum.se dinkelcentrum.se German-English Dictionary: Translation for Odyssee. This focus is especially remarkable when considered against the other Homeric epic, the Iliadwhich centres the exploits of soldiers and kings during the Trojan War. The story briefly shifts to the suitors, who have Toiletten Spiel just now realized that Telemachus is gone. Since the late 19th century many papyri containing parts or even entire chapters have been Odysee Joyclub Anmelden Egypt, with content different from later medieval versions. The Odyssee indicators are accessible under different data tools: the full data Visa Credit Debit, the key indicators facility, as well as five specific data facilities that focus on Odysee issues and provide some interpretation: market diffusion, decomposition, benchmarking, energy saving and Elv Zahlungsverfahren scoreboard. July 10, Archived from the original on 4 July Polyphemus demonstrates poor guest-friendship. Other authors have composed more creative reworkings of the poem, often updated to address contemporary themes and concerns. His only "gift" to Odysseus is that he will eat him last.